Assessment of Some Haemo-rheological Parameters in Descent of Rumuche, Emohua, Rivers State, Nigeria with Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease

Main Article Content

Serekara Gideon Christian
Ransome Baribefii Jacob
Mercy Eberechi Onu


Aims: This study assessed some haemo-rheological parameters on individuals with Rheumatoid Arthritis disease.

Study Design: A cross sectional, case-control field based design was employed with a total of eighty-six subjects consisting of thirty-one males and fifty-five females aged between 20- 80 years. Thirty-nine positive subjects for rheumatoid arthritis served as test while forty-seven negative subjects were used as control.

Methodology: Samples obtained were screened using latex agglutination method for the presence of rheumatoid factor, fibrinogen estimation was done using ELISA method, packed cell volume was determined using microhaeamatocrit method, erythrocyte sedimentation rate was determined using Westergren method and haemoglobin concentration was determined using cyanmethaemoglobin method. Data obtained were analyzed using Graph-pad prism 8.2 version.

Results: Result showed that 45.3% of the studied population were positive for rheumatoid arthritis (females: 31.4%; males: 13.9%). Gender based percentage in relation to positivity for rheumatoid arthritis showed that females (49.0%) were more affected than males (38.7%). Between those without rheumatoid arthritis (control) and those with rheumatoid arthritis (test), there was statistically significant increase in mean values of erythrocyte sedimentation rate in test group when compared to the control group (p < 0.0001); there was no statistical significant difference (p > 0.05) in other parameters. Gender based comparison of studied parameters based on positivity and negativity of rheumatoid arthritis showed a statistically significant increase in erythrocyte sedimentation rate: 36.67 ± 14.87 mm/hr versus 10.79 ± 11.00 mm/hr(p < 0.0001) in test group for males while packed cell volume, haemoglobin and fibrinogen showed no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05). In females, there was statistical significant increase in packed cell volume: 36.56 ± 3.896% versus 33.96 ± 4.501% (p < 0.05) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate: 50.07 ± 28.73 mm/hr versus 25.43 ± 21.77 mm/h (p = 0.0007) in rheumatoid positive females; haemoglobin and fibrinogen concentration showed no statistically difference (p > 0.05).

Conclusion: The percentage positivity for rheumatoid arthritis in the studied subjects was 45.3% with females affected more than males. No statistical significant difference was observed in fibrinogen and haemoglobin concentrations based on the presence of the disease and in-gender comparison. Rheumatoid arthritis is significantly associated with increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate in both male and female with attendant increased packed cell volume in females. This confirms the high rate of inflammation at the joint (synovium) around the microvasculature in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The arthritis in this study is non-anaemic with respect to mean values of packed cell volume.

Rheumatoid arthritis, fibrinogen, cyanmethaemoglobin, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, packed cell volume, haemo-rheological.

Article Details

How to Cite
Christian, S. G., Jacob, R. B., & Onu, M. E. (2020). Assessment of Some Haemo-rheological Parameters in Descent of Rumuche, Emohua, Rivers State, Nigeria with Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease. Asian Hematology Research Journal, 3(2), 11-17. Retrieved from
Original Research Article


World postal code. Emohua post codes: Nigeria.
(Accessed 5th July, 2019)

Arthritis Foundation. What is arthritis? Available: arthritis/understanding-arthritis/what-is-arthritis.php
(Accessed 24th May, 2019)

Firestein GS. Evolving concepts of rheumatoid arthritis. Nature Journal. 2003;423(6937):356-361.

Nall R. Blood tests for rheumatoid arthritis: what to know.
(Accessed 26th October, 2018)

American College of Rheumatology. Guidelines for the management of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis and Rheumatism Therapy. 2002;46:328-346.

Klingel R, Fassbender C, Fassbender T et al. Rheopheresis: Rheologic, functional and structural aspects. Therapeutic Apheresis. 2000;4:348-357.

Ernst E, Thies W, Matrai A, et al. Haemorheological abnormalities in rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical Haemorheol-ogy and Microcirculation 1987;7(4):591-598.

Ochei J, Kolhatkar A. Antigen-antibody reaction in vitro: rheumatoid factor screening test. Medical laboratory science theory and practice. New Delhi: McGraw-Hill Limited. 2004;207.

Cheesbrough M. Haematological tests. District laboratory practice in tropical countries part 2. Second edition, Cambridge. 2006;(chapter 8):309,329.

Rooney T, Scherzer R, Shigenaga JK, et al. Levels of plasma fibrinogen are elevated in well-controlled rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology Oxford. 2011; 50(8):1458-1465.

Babikir M, Gaufri N. Association of fibrinogen, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and c-reactive protein levels with rheumatoid arthritis. Open Access Library Journal. 2017;4:1-8.

Santos MJ, Mendes P, Canhao H, et al. Haemorheological parameters are related to subclinical atherosclerosis in systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis patients. Atherosclerosis. 2011; 219:821-826.

Sharma V, Gupta A, Sharma T. Plasma fibrinogen levels in rheumatoid arthritis. International Journal of Contemporary Medical Research. 2018;5(3):C15-C17.

Ohagwu KA, Olaosebikan H, Oba RB, et al. Pattern of rheumatoid arthritis in Nigeria: study of Patients from a teaching hospital. African Journal of Rheumatology. 2017; 5(1):8-12.

Mursal T, Elbager S, Elmola AF, et al. Differential diagnosis of anaemia in rheumatoid arthritis Sudanese patients. World Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research. 2016;2(4):01-04.

Okoroiwu IL, Obeagu EI, Obeagu GU. Haematological variables in rheumatoid arthritis patients in Imo State Nigeria. International Journal of Advanced Research in Biological Sciences. 2016;3(4): 91-98.

Ricci I, Sofi F, Liotta AA, et al. Alterations of haemorheological parameters in patients with peripheral Arterial Disease. Clinical Haemorheology and Micro-circulation. 2013;55:271-276.

Cimato AN, Facono GB, Piehl LL, et al Oxidative damage and antioxidant status in diabetes mellitus and rheumatoid arthritis: A comparative study. The Open Clinical Chemistry Journal. 2008;1:92-98.