Asian Hematology Research Journal <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Asian Hematology Research Journal</strong>&nbsp;aims to publish&nbsp;high-quality&nbsp;papers (<a href="/index.php/AHRJ/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of&nbsp;‘Hematology research’. This journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct, scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> Asian Hematology Research Journal en-US Asian Hematology Research Journal Evaluation of Common Coagulation Tests in Type 2 Diabetic Patients and Association with Diabetic Pre-cardiovascular Complications, Gezira State–Sudan, 2020-2021 <p><strong>Background and Objectives: </strong>Diabetes has an epidemic character because of the huge growth within side the wide variety of human affected in latest years. If laboratory findings display abnormalities connected to an improved threat of thrombosis, diabetes, specifically type 2, can present hypercoagulability symptoms. The aim of this study to evaluate the common coagulation parameters PT, aPTT, and D-dimer in patients suffering with diabetes type 2 and to associate these parameters with the thrombotic complication in those patients.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong><strong>:</strong> This was a case control study performed on 70 patients with diabetic type 2 from different ages (Their ages ranging from 20 -72 years with an average age of 56.2 years) and different gender (41.4% were males and 58.6% were females) attending the Diabetic Clinic of the Aldaraja Health Center, compared&nbsp; with 50 apparently healthy individual as a control group were enrolled in study and that in Wad Madeni, Gezira State, central of the Sudan in the period between June 2020 to January 2021,&nbsp; Blood were collected from each enrolled subject and the levels of PT, aPTT and D-dimer were measured.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>This study showed lower levels of PT and aPTT (patients 13.3 seconds/ control 14.3 seconds and patients 34.3 seconds/ control 36.6 seconds) respectively with highly significance difference (<em>P. value</em> = 0.001) respectively when compared with control group, while showed higher level of D-dimer (patients 585.3 ng/ml/ control 178.58 ng/ml) with highly significant difference (<em>P. value</em> = 0.000) when compared with control group. In diabetic patients without thrombosis (early onset of occurring thrombosis) had low level of PT with highly significant difference (<em>P. value</em> = 0.000) when compared with diabetes plus thrombosis and control groups.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>We concluded that the Sudanese diabetic patients had a procoagulant state that would result in thrombosis, so we advocated that diabetic patients, specifically type 2 to take delivery of anticoagulant therapy for as a minimum a quick time as a preventative degree to keep away from thrombus formation, specifically cardiovascular.</p> Rowida Eljack Ibrahim Sanaa Elfatih Hussein Ibrahim Khalid Abdalsame Abdarahim Babikir Haj Alzebar Adil Merghani Babiker Bakri Yousif Mohamed Nour ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-09-16 2021-09-16 1 6 Spectrum of Complications in Patients of Acute Leukemia- A Regional Study from Pgims, Rohtak <p><strong>Objectives</strong><strong>:</strong> This study was conducted to determine the spectrum of complications in patients of acute leukemia.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong><strong>:</strong> The present study was conducted at Pandit Bhagwat Dayal Sharma Post</p> <p>Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Rohtak and data was collected from patients who presented with confirmed diagnosis of acute leukemia over a period of one year. Patients satisfying inclusion criteria were monitored for development of any complications. Baseline parameters were recorded on admission and then every 7 days interval till remission. Data were analyzed by statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version16.0.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The data was collected from 35 patients. Most common presenting complaint was fever in 88.6% of patients. AML was diagnosed in 16 patients (45.7%) and rest had ALL (54.2%). In our study about 25% of patients had bleeding symptoms at presentations and almost 100% of patients developed bleeding complications during induction therapy. Most common sites of bleeding in our study was cutaneous bleed (100%) followed by gum bleed (26.4%). Life threatening bleeding in form of intracranial bleed was noted in 4 patients of which 3 patients died of bleeding complications amounting to 27.2%. Among 34 patients twenty two patients (64.7%) had neutropenia. Infectious complications were the second most common complication noted in our study. Most common infectious complication was pneumonia seen in 25.9% of febrile patients followed by blood stream infection (18.5%). An infectious etiology was documented in 33.3% of patients with frequency of gram negative and gram positive infections was 88.9% and 11.1% respectively. <em>Pseudomonas sp</em> was the most commonly (44.4%) isolated micro-organism. Among patients with pneumonia fungal etiology was identified in 71.4% of patients making IFIs one of the most frequent infectious complications in acute leukemia patients. In our study 18.7 % of patients developed TLS, all patients had Laboratory TLS and only one patient had Clinical TLS. One patient developed L-asparaginase induced acute pancreatitis and one patient developed differentiation syndrome.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Acute leukemia is a devastating disease with wide spectrum of complications not only related to disease part but also because of its treatment</p> Sudhir Kumar Atri . Homdutt Devender Yadav Bhanu Pratap Singh Shiv Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-07 2021-10-07 7 19 Frequency and Distribution of ABO and Rh(D) Blood Groups in Glucose – 6 – Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) Deficient Neonates: A Hospital-Based Study in Uyo, Nigeria <p><strong>Background: </strong>Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, an X-linked recessive disorder, is the commonest inherited red cell enzymopathy affecting mankind. It is known to cause severe neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia that can result in permanent neurologic damage or death. Numerous associations have been reported between ABO and Rh blood groups and increased or decreased susceptibility to diseases, including G6PD deficiency. However, studies on the association between G6PD deficiency and ABO and Rh blood groups have been largely inconsistent and limited.</p> <p><strong>Aims and Objectives: </strong>To estimate the level of G6PD activity among icteric neonates delivered at University of Uyo Teaching Hospital with the view of determining the prevalence of G6PD deficiency as well as to examine the association, if any, between G6PD and ABO and Rh blood types.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> One hundred and fifty neonates were recruited into the study over a period of two years. Screening for G6PD deficiency was carried out using a quantitative in vitro test (Assay Pro) while the ABO and Rh(D) blood group phenotypes were determined using the standard tube method. The data were analyzed with SPSS version 23.0. Chi-square was used for test of significance.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The overall prevalence of G6PD deficiency in the icteric neonates was 26.0%. The prevalence in males was 27.0% and 23.1% in females. Majority of the patients were of the O and Rh (D) positive blood types, the frequency and distribution of these blood group phenotypes among the patients were not different from the pattern reported in the general population in our clime. There was no statistically significant association between GGPD deficiency and the ABO and Rh (D) blood types of the patients(p&lt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>There is a high prevalence of G6PD deficiency in icteric babies delivered at University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo, Nigeria. This justifies the need for routine neonatal screening for G6PD deficiency in all healthcare institutions in our environment. The association between G6PD deficiency and ABO and Rh (D) blood types was not statistically significant. However, we recommend that a large multicentre study be conducted in Nigeria and other African countries for the purpose of validating our results.</p> Idongesit Samuel Akpan Adesina Sunday Babatunde Emmanuel Effiong Ekanem Emmanuel Oswald King Enam-Eti Okon Akpan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-11-19 2021-11-19 20 30 Assessment for the Cost of Care for Children with Sickle Cell Anaemia in a Tertiary Hospital in Northeastern Nigeria <p><strong>Background: </strong>Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is a chronic haemolytic anaemic condition resulting in various forms of crises leading to repeated hospitalizations, due to severe pains, infections and anaemia. Knowing this chronic symptomatic disorder that requires constant care by the caregivers of these children, the caregivers of the children with SCA undergo financial hardship in the course of taking care of them. The caregivers experience lots of financial stress from feeding them, taking them to the regular clinic for routine follow-up, paying for their regular drugs, hospital bills/beds when admitted and transportation. As of now, in Nigeria, there is no special programme or legislature to advocate for the Federal or State Government to subsidize SCA patient treatments. The cost implication of sustaining health through routine care and providing healthcare services to SCA patients during any form of crisis is very variable that is borne by the triad of the family caregiver, community or society and state health system itself. The cost of care estimation methods tends to align with these three perspectives singly or in combination with the caregiver of the SCA patient playing a major role. We, therefore, decided to look into the aspect of finances, and how the caregivers are coping as seen in the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital (UMTH), insurgency devastated State in Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To assess the cost of care for children with sickle cell anaemia in a Tertiary Hospital of an insurgency devastated region in Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This was a cross-sectional study of caregivers of children with SCA seen at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital. A total of 130 caregivers were randomly selected in a systematic random sampling method where alternate caregivers were recruited when they met the inclusion criteria and were interviewed using a structured questionnaire to assess the cost of care for a child with SCA in the family. They were all administered the questionnaire during the clinic appointment, after going through the questionnaire with them over two months period. The clinic holds every Wednesday and the average clinic attendance ranges from 30 to 45.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>One hundred and twenty-seven questionnaires were valid for analysis. Ninety-eight (77.2%) of the respondents were mothers, two-third were from low social class and unemployed full-time housewives. The majority of the caregivers 111 (87.4%) pay for medical bills out-of-pocket, only 16 (12.6%) had registration with NHIS. Fifty-one (40.2%) of the caregivers had to borrow money to pay hospital bills, while 76 (59.8%) do not borrow money for the cost of care of their children with SCD. Of the SCA patients, 46 were not admitted in the last 1 year, 51 (40.2%) were admitted once, 16 (12.6%) were admitted twice, 10 (7,9%) thrice and 4 (3.1%) had 4 or more admissions. For just one admission, they spend a range of ₦750 ($1.6) – ₦4,050:00 ($8.6), thus for 4 admissions, ₦3,000 ($6.4) to ₦16,200 ($34.5) was spent per admission. Forty-seven (37%) of the caregivers have expenses incurred during the treatment of their children which affect their ability to provide for the family basic need, while 80 (63%) did not incur any funds for the care of their children with SCA.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The study demonstrated that caregivers of children with SCA experienced heavy financial burdens and this experience culminate in socio-political and economic situations occasioned by the insurgency devastation of the northeastern region of Nigeria.</p> J. P. Ambe A. G. Farouk Z. Wudiri A. M. Abba B. J. Dada F. L. Bukar B. A. Omotara ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 31 40