Aim: This study aimed at evaluating the red cell indices of children seen at the Federal Medical Centre, Azare, Nigeria, with a view to determining their utility in the diagnosis of severe malaria.
Study Design: The study was a case control study.
Place and Duration of the study: The study was conducted at the department of Paediatrics, Federal Medical Centre, Azare, Bauchi state, Nigeria from 1st August to 31st October, 2013.
Methodology: One hundred and ninety-six children aged 6 months to 12 years, comprising of 98 diagnosed with severe malaria and 98 controls were recruited into the study. The control subjects (with no clinical features of severe malaria) were recruited from the paediatric out patients unit (POPD). The following red cell indices were obtained from the subjects; haematocrit (HCT), haemoglobin concentration (HB), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC). The data was analysed using SPSS version 16.0. Diagnostic precision was determined by calculating sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive and negative predictive values. The accuracy of these figures was assessed using 95% confidence interval.
Results: The HCT had a sensitivity of 79.59% and a specificity of 80.65%, while the HB had a sensitivity of 81.63% and a specificity of 71.15%. The positive predictive values for HCT and HB were 86.67% and 84.21% respectively. MCV (59.04%), MCH (0.00%) and MCHC (0.00%) had low values. MCH and MCHC however had a significant relationship with severe malaria (P˂ .001).
Conclusion: In the presence of supporting clinical evidence, the existence of anaemia in a child in Azare would be a valuable supporting criterion in the diagnosis of severe malaria.
Typing of red blood cells is a prerequisite for blood transfusion. Blood types (A, B, AB and O) may be respectively distributed and transmitted by Ethnicity and Mendelian heredity. The goal of this study was to determine amongst the Urhobos, the possible association between the ABO/Rhesus blood groups and type II diabetes mellitus. To achieve this, a total of 410 (200 diabetic and 210 non-diabetic) subjects were randomly recruited within the Urhobos; ethnic nationalities in south-south geopolitical zone of Nigeria. Using syringe and EDTA, Blood samples were obtained from each subject for specific anti-sera test (anti-A, anti-B and anti-D). Using the chi-square test, statistical measure of association was performed on obtained data, with p-value < 0.05 adjudged as statistically significant. Upon careful observation, Study found no significant difference in the distribution of ABO blood group between Diabetics and Non-Diabetics (control) at p<0.05. Apparently, while diabetics had less distribution of blood group A (as against control), Blood group AB was commoner in non-diabetics. These observations were however, not statistically significant at p<0.05, as Blood groups B and O showed similar distribution in both groups respectively.
Sickle cell anaemia is a hereditary blood disease characterized by the presence of haemoglobin S in red blood cells. It affects over 2 million people in Cameroon. Haemoglobin S can induce the oxidative stress and changes in electrolyte level in patients. The aim of this study was to measure the serum electrolytes Ca, Mg, K, P, Fe, Zn, Cu, Se and certain stress markers (Malondialdehyde , FRAP and catalase) in sickle cell patients.
Forty SS patients and forty AA individuals (control) were selected and given questionnaires to gather information on their demographic characteristics, health states and eating habits. The Ca, Mg, K, P, Fe, Zn, Cu and Se elements as well as certain stress markers were assessed in their serum using the atomic absorption spectrophotometry and colorimetric methods respectively.
The results obtained showed that SS patients present a deficiency in micronutrients and a high state of stress. The regular consumption of foods such as fish, milk and rice by sickle cell patients significantly increased the normal rate of electrolytes. On the contrary, hyperthermia, intense sport and alcohol consumption lowered their normal rate.
Conclusively, the assessment of electrolyte levels and oxidative stress should be taken into consideration in the management of sickle cell disease.
Background: SCA is a systemic disease which affects more than 50 million people in the world. The gene mutation results in the cause of the synthesis of abnormal haemoglobin S (HbS) which is a pro-oxidant machine and induces ROS production. In addition, sickle cell patients are deficient in body composition parameters. The aim of this study is to contribute to a better management of sickle cell anaemia patients by evaluating the relationship between protein-energy status and the state of oxidative stress.
Methods: Hundred participants were recruited and divided into two groups (52 sickle cell patients and 48 healthy participants). The investigation on their Body Mass indices and their nutritional status were conducted through a questionnaire. Several biochemical parameters related to proteo-energy deficiency and oxidative stress were assessed such as albumin and transferrin, Malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (FRAP), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT) and Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities using standard methods.
Results: BMI and MDA was significantly less in SS group compared to the healthy population. Opposite observations were done to other markers investigated including GSH, CAT, SOD and GPX activities and FRAP. The Albumin level increased significantly while transferrin values remained comparable. The oxidative stress and protein-energy status parameters presented negative correlations. Factors such as age, hydration, consumption of meat and fruit affected the biochemical parameters investigated.
Conclusion: These results suggest that sickle cell patients in Yaoundé-Cameroon are underweight with higher oxidative stress status. Moreover, they are under stress; nevertheless, they have a good protein-energy status.
The hematological indices namely erythrogram is an important parameter for evaluating human’s physiological status. I can vary accordingly depending upon the differential traits (Asian, Arabian, European … etc), sex, age, and health condition. In best of our knowledge, due to lack of researches in absence of constant values in this area this study is aimed to identify the reference values of erythrogram in the adults at Hodeidah, Yemen. The hematological analyzer (Sysmex KX-21) was validated for assessing the linearity, accuracy, precision and quantification with limit of different blood samples and was used for sampling in research analysis. Participated volunteers of this study were provided written consent, by following the university of Hodiedah and Office of Health and Public declaration. The erythrogram parameters include hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cells (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), mean cell volume (MCV), mean cell hemoglobin (MCH), mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), for two investigated groups amongst whom 500 were males and 500 were females. Obtained data were analyzed. The results of validated method were precise to each analyze with percent relative standard deviations (RSD %) of intra-assay and inter – assay (< 5.0%) methods. Furthermore, the accuracy of validated method exhibit well recovery values of ± 5% and the coefficient correlation (R2) value was more than 0.9995 as a good linear method. On the other hand, the results showed the level of Hb, RBC, and PCV to be significantly different from males than that of females (p < 0.05). The erythrogram parametric means of this study were constant with the international normal range except for the MCH in both the groups, whereas reduction of Hb is found from the study. These variations might be related to the case of infectious diseases, but low in nutritional values and the geographical location of Hodeidah city, Yemen.