Aim: This study was aimed at evaluating various effects of falciparum malaria on haematological parameters in malaria infected patients.
Study Design: Hospital based cross-sectional study.
Place and duration of Study: The study was conducted in Specialist Hospital, Sokoto Metropolis, Sokoto State Nigeria between May 2015 and November, 2015.
Methodology: Two hundred and fifty four (254) malaria suspected patients were recruited for the study. Thick and thin blood films were prepared for each patients and stained with Giemsa to aid the detection of malaria parasites. Patients haematological parameters were determined using hematology analyzer (Sysmex KX-21N).
Results: Out of the 254 patients, 167 (65.7%) had malaria. Significant differences in haematological parameters between P. falciparum malaria parasitemic patients and non parasitemic patients were only observed in mean (±SD) of the WBC (10.13±3.11x10³/µl versus 5.10±2.51x10³/µl, P = .003), Hb (12.54±2.15 g/dl versus 8.13±1.68 g/dl, P= .001) and the platelet count (262.67±112.13x10³/µl versus 125.67±41.70x10³/µl, P = .005). The mean (±SD) values of the red blood cells indices (MCV, MCH, MCHC) and differential lymphocyte and granulocyte count did not significantly differ between the two groups. Changes in haemoglobin, platelets and white blood cell count are the classical alterations.
Conclusion: Changes in haematological parameters are only indicators of probable malaria infection, but when used with other clinical and microscopy parameters, they can significantly improve malaria diagnosis and timely further treatment for malaria infection.
Anemia remains a major risk factor for unfavorable outcome of pregnancy both for the mother and the fetus. It is the world’s second leading cause of disability and one of the most serious global public health problems among children and pregnant women. Its diagnosis remains a challenge in poor and underfunded hospitals and primary health centers. This study is a hospital-based cross-sectional study conducted in Ondo Specialist Hospital, Ondo town to assess anemia among pregnant women attending antenatal care clinic from August to October 2015. One hundred and fifty pregnant women were enrolled in this study. Data were collected using pretested questionnaire, which contains socio-demographic characteristics of the pregnant women. Blood samples were collected to measure hemoglobin and Packed Cell Volume (PCV) levels. Data were entered and statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 20.0 software. Association between variables was done using chi square, and statistical significance was considered at p<0.05. The mean age of pregnant women was 28.92±4.89 years and the prevalence of anemia obtained in this study using the Tallquist, Hemoglobin cyanide methods and PCV was 36%, 36.7% and 47.3% respectively, based on the World Health Organization criterion for the diagnosis of anemia in pregnancy (hemoglobin <11.0 g/dl; PCV <33%). Our study revealed a high prevalence of anemia in pregnant women and calls for more health intervention including health education about causes of anemia and its risk factors. Antenatal care follow up should also be improved on.
Introduction: HIV has a significant effect on iron metabolism in women of childbearing age in developing countries. The purpose of this study is to identify in this population layer, the type of HIV truly responsible for changes in iron metabolism.
Materials and Methods: Thus, 395 HIV infected women of childbearing age were selected. This population included 120 non-pregnant women and 275 pregnant women in consultation at the Integrated Center for Bioclinical Research Abidjan (ICBRA). Blood samples were collected from each of the subjects for HIV status, hematological, immunological, and various biological indicators of iron status determination.
Results: The results of the study indicated that women infected with HIV-1 and HIV-2 had a high mean values of hemoglobin, serum ferritin and iron stores. In addition, women infected with the two types of HIV had the lowest mean values of total transferrin binding capacity, transferrin saturation factors, and CD4+ levels compared to the other groups of women. However, women infected with HiV-1 showed the highest prevalence of anemia (65.3%). This rate of anemia is higher in pregnant women (45.3%) compared to non-pregnant one (20%). Moreover, 77.5% of women infected with HIV had abnormal iron status with a high prevalence of inflammatory anemia (52.9%). No significant nutritional anemia was observed in the study population.
Conclusion: Pregnant women were the most affected by the degradation of iron metabolism. HIV-1 was the type of virus that caused the most impairment of iron status in the subjects of our study.
Aims: This study aimed at assessing haemoglobin (Hb) types of couples, their knowledge of Hb types at the time of union and outcome on offspring.
Study Design: Cross-sectional descriptive study.
Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in Abi local government area of Cross River State between March and July, 2018.
Methodology: Two hundred consenting couples and their 445 offspring were enrolled in this study. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was administered by two trained interviewers to capture the bio-data and other pertinent information in relation to couple’s knowledge of Hb types. Blood sample was collected from each participant and Hb type was determined by electrophoresis in alkaline pH using cellulose acetate method.
Results: Thirty-eight percentage (38%) of the females and 30% of the males who participated in this study lacked knowledge of their haemoglobin type at the time of producing offspring. Haemoglobin type AA predominated (70% of females and 72% of males), while 30% females and 28% males accounted for the presence of AS. The Hb types of their offspring were 79% AA, 15% AS and 6% SS. Among AS and AS couples, 67% had no knowledge of their Hb type prior to having children and contributed to 85% of children with Hb SS.
Conclusion: Ignorance of haemoglobin types prior to having children contributed to the high prevalence of Hb SS observed in the present study.
Newcastle disease (ND) is a severe and fatal disease of poultry caused by Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV). The disease is of economic and public health importance and has been a threat to the growth of poultry industry. A hundred and twenty day-old broiler chickens were procured from a commercial breeder farm. Glucose, vitamin, antibiotics were administered accordingly. Birds were tested for antibodies to NDV and vaccines were administered accordingly. Feed and water were also provided ad-libitum. Birds were randomly distributed into groups. Experimental birds were challenged at five weeks of age. Blood samples were collected for haematology assay periodically after challenging with NDV. The erythrocyte response in the chickens had varying patterns; there were significant reduction in values of Total Erythrocyte Count, Packed Cell Volume, Hemoglobin count in infected chickens. Monocytes were reduced significantly in the infected birds to 7±0.6% as compared to uninfected birds which had 10±0.9%. There were no significant changes in the Eosinophil and basophil absolute values in both infected and uninfected birds during the course of the study. This study showed that haematological values of broiler chicken significantly differ (p=< 0.05) from uninfected and infected birds with virulent NDV. Generally, there were no significant differences in the profile of the vaccinated birds. Hence the need for vaccination and research towards anti-NDV therapeutic discoveries cannot be overemphasized.